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Thyroid and Parathyroid Benign and Malignant Surgery

The thyroid, a little butterfly-shaped gland at the base of your neck, produces thyroid cancer. Hormones produced by this gland govern your metabolism (how your body uses energy). Thyroid hormones are also involved in the regulation of body temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate. Thyroid cancer, which is a kind of endocrine cancer, is usually quite curable and has a high cure rate.


Experts are baffled as to why certain cells turn cancerous (malignant) and attack the thyroid. Radiation exposure, a low-iodine diet, and defective genes are all known to raise risk. A thyroid nodule is a bump or growth in your neck that you or your healthcare professional may feel. If you have a thyroid nodule, don't be alarmed. The majority of nodules are harmless (not cancer). Only around three out of every twenty thyroid nodules are cancerous (malignant).


The size of the tumour and whether the cancer has spread determine the treatment options for thyroid cancer. The following are some of the treatments: 


  • The most common therapy for thyroid cancer is surgery. Your surgeon may remove part of the thyroid gland (lobectomy) or the entire gland (total thyroidectomy) depending on the size and location of the tumour (thyroidectomy). Any surrounding lymph nodes where cancer cells have disseminated are also removed by your surgeon.


  • Radioiodine therapy involves taking a pill or drink that has a larger dose of radioactive iodine than is used in a diagnostic radioiodine scan. The radioiodine shrinks and kills cancer cells as well as the damaged thyroid gland. Don't be scared; this procedure is completely safe. Almost majority of the radioiodine is absorbed by your thyroid gland. The rest of your body is only exposed to a small amount of radiation. 


  • Radiation therapy kills cancer cells and prevents them from multiplying. External radiation therapy involves the employment of a machine to deliver high-energy beams directly to the tumour site.


  • Chemotherapy is a type of treatment that kills cancer cells and slows their growth. It can be given intravenously or orally. Only a small percentage of thyroid cancer patients will ever require chemotherapy. 

  • Hormone therapy is a type of treatment that prevents the release of hormones that can cause cancer to spread or return.


Thyroid hormones are still required for your body to function after thyroid surgery or therapies. You'll need thyroid hormone replacement therapy for the rest of your life. Synthetic thyroid hormones like levothyroxine replace thyroid hormones that your body no longer makes naturally.


Malignant (cancer) cells grow in the tissues of the parathyroid gland, causing parathyroid cancer. The parathyroid glands are four small structures located near the thyroid gland in the neck. Parathyroid hormone is produced by the parathyroid glands (PTH or parathormone). PTH aids the body's usage and storage of calcium, allowing calcium levels in the blood to remain normal. Hyperparathyroidism is a condition in which the parathyroid gland becomes overactive and produces too much PTH. When a benign tumour (noncancer) called an adenoma grows on one of the parathyroid glands, it causes it to expand and become overactive, resulting in hyperparathyroidism.


Staging is the procedure for determining whether parathyroid cancer has spread to other regions of the body. At Dr. Ghodratollah, the imaging tests below can be performed to see if cancer has spread to other regions of the body, such as the lungs, liver, bone, heart, pancreas, or lymph nodes:


  • A CT scan (also known as a CAT scan) is a process that involves taking a sequence of detailed photographs of different parts of the body from various angles. A computer connected to an x-ray equipment creates the images. To make the organs or tissues show up more clearly, a dye may be injected into a vein or ingested. Computed tomography, computerised tomography, and computerised axial tomography are all terms used to describe this operation.


  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a method that involves the use of a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to create a sequence of detailed images of inside organs. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging is another name for this treatment (NMRI).

    The most common treatment for parathyroid cancer that is in the parathyroid glands or has migrated to other regions of the body is surgery (removal of the disease in an operation). Because parathyroid cancer grows slowly, it can be surgically removed if it has spread to other parts of the body, allowing the patient to be cured or have the disease's effects controlled for a long time. Treatment is administered to control hypercalcemia prior to surgery.

At Dr. Ghodratollah Surgical Procedures such as the ones listed, by the Best Thyroid Surgeon in Dubai, Below may be used: 

  • En bloc excision is a surgical procedure that removes the entire parathyroid gland as well as the capsule that surrounds it. Lymph nodes, half of the thyroid gland on the same side of the body as the tumour, as well as muscles, tissues, and a nerve in the neck, are sometimes removed. 


  • Tumor debulking is a surgical procedure that involves removing as much of the tumour as feasible. It is not always possible to remove the entire tumour. 


  • A metastasectomy is a procedure that removes cancer that has spread to other organs, such as the lung.


The nerves of the voice cords can be damaged during surgery for parathyroid carcinoma. There are treatments available to aid in the therapy of speech issues caused by nerve injury. 


Receiving a cancer diagnosis, regardless of the type, is frightening. Fortunately, the majority of thyroid and parathyroid tumours respond well to treatment. Your doctor can talk to you about the best treatment options for your specific type of thyroid cancer. You may need to take synthetic thyroid hormones for the rest of your life after treatment. These hormones help the body work properly. They normally don't have any serious adverse effects, but you'll need to visit your doctor on a frequent basis to have your health monitored.

Image by JC Gellidon

About Dr. Ghodratollah Nowrasteh

Dr. Ghodratollah Nowrasteh is a surgical oncologist with a doctorate in Medicine from the Medical University of Pécs in Hungary. He has a Qualification in Breast Surgery from the European Board of Surgery in Belgium and a Qualification in Surgical Oncology from the European Board of Surgical Oncology.

Dr. Nowrasteh is a highly experienced expert at the many kinds of cases handled by the General Surgery department, including surgery for breast cancer, thyroid cancer, colorectal cancer, and soft tissue tumours. He performs minimally invasive laparoscopic surgeries. He also uses laparoscopic techniques to perform hernia, gallbladder, appendix and gastro intestinal surgeries in addition to performing colorectal and proctology (fistula, haemorrhoids, pilonidal sinus, etc...) related surgeries.

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